Perturbations of the physiological status of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trigger a specific response known as the ER stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR). In mammalian cells, the UPR is mediated by three ER transmembrane proteins (IRE1, PERK and ATF6) which activate three signaling cascades to restore ER homeostasis. In recent years, a cross-talk between UPR, inflammatory and microbial sensing pathways has been elucidated. Pathogen infection can lead to UPR activation; moreover, several pathogens subvert the UPR to promote their survival and replication. While the UPR in viral and bacterial infection has been characterized, little is known about the role of UPR in intracellular parasite infection. Here, we review recent findings on UPR induction/modulation by intracellular parasites in host cells.
Cryptosporidium; ER stress; Leishmania; Plasmodium; Toxoplasma; immunity; protozoan parasites; unfolded protein response