Thursday, March 12, 2015

IL-6 driven inflammatory response induces retinal pathology in a model of ocular toxoplasmosis reactivation

2015 Mar 9. pii: IAI.02985-14. [Epub ahead of print]
Ocular inflammation is one of the consequences of infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Even if lesions are self-healing in immunocompetent persons, they pose a life-time risk of reactivation and are a serious threat to vision. As there are virtually no immunological data on reactivating ocular toxoplasmosis, we established a model of direct intravitreal injection of parasites in previously infected mice with a homologous type II strain. Two different mouse strains with variable ability to control retinal infection were studied in order to describe protective and deleterious reaction patterns. In Swiss-Webster mice, which are already relatively resistant to primary infection, no peak of parasite load was observed upon reinfection. In contrast, the susceptible inbred strain C57Bl/6 showed high parasite loads after 7 days, as well as marked deterioration of retinal architecture. Both parameters were back to normal at day 21. C57Bl/6 mice also reacted with a strong local production of inflammatory and Th1 type cytokines like IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ, while Swiss-Webster mice only showed moderate expression of the Th2 cytokine IL-31. Interestingly, rapid intraocular production of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was observed in Swiss-Webster, but not C57Bl/6 mice. We then localized the cellular source of different immune mediators within the retina by immunofluorescence. Finally, neutralization experiments of IFN-γ or IL-6 demonstrated the respective protective and deleterious roles of these cytokines for parasite control and retinal integrity during reinfection. In conclusion, we developed and immunologically characterized a promising mouse model of reactivating ocular toxoplasmosis.
Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

No comments: