PLoS One. 2014 Aug 20;9(8):e105120. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105120. eCollection 2014.
BACKGROUND:Within one week following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma (T.) gondii, susceptible mice develop non-selflimiting acute ileitis due to an underlying Th1-type immunopathology. The role of the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (NOD2) in mediating potential extra-intestinal inflammatory sequelae including the brain, however, has not been investigated so far.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Following peroral infection with 100 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49, NOD2-/- mice displayed more severe ileitis and higher small intestinal parasitic loads as compared to wildtype (WT) mice. However, systemic (i.e. splenic) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ were lower in NOD2-/- mice versus WT controls at day 7 p.i. Given that the immunopathological outcome might be influenced by the intestinal microbiota composition, which is shaped by NOD2, we performed a quantitative survey of main intestinal bacterial groups by 16S rRNA analysis. Interestingly, Bifidobacteria were virtually absent in NOD2-/- but not WT mice, whereas differences in remaining bacterial species were rather subtle. Interestingly, more distinct intestinal inflammation was accompanied by higher bacterial translocation rates to extra-intestinal tissue sites such as liver, spleen, and kidneys in T. gondii infected NOD2-/- mice. Strikingly, intracerebral inflammatory foci could be observed as early as seven days following T. gondii infection irrespective of the genotype of animals, whereas NOD2-/- mice exhibited higher intracerebral parasitic loads, higher F4/80 positive macrophage and microglia numbers as well as higher IFN-γ mRNA expression levels as compared to WT control animals.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE:NOD2 signaling is involved in protection of mice from T. gondii induced acute ileitis. The parasite-induced Th1-type immunopathology at intestinal as well as extra-intestinal sites including the brain is modulated in a NOD2-dependent manner.
- [PubMed - in process]