Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2013 May 18;3:93-101. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2013.04.001. eCollection 2013.
Identification of mutations in TgMAPK1 of Toxoplasma gondii conferring resistance to 1NM-PP1
Sugi T1, Kobayashi K2, Takemae H1, Gong H1, Ishiwa A1, Murakoshi F1, Recuenco FC1, Iwanaga T1, Horimoto T1, Akashi H1, Kato K3.
Toxoplasma gondii is an important food and waterborne pathogen that causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) have an antiparasitic effect on T. gondii tachyzoite growth by targeting T. gondii calmodulin-domain protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1). To identify mutations that confer resistance to BKIs, chemical mutagenesis was performed, followed by selection in media containing either 250 or 1000 nM 1NM-PP1. Whole-genome sequence analysis of resistant clones revealed single nucleotide mutations in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (TgMAPK1) at amino acids 162 (L162Q) and 171 (I171N). Plasmid constructs having the TgMAPK1 L162Q mutant sequence successfully replaced native TgMAPK1 genome locus in the presence of 1000 nM 1NM-PP1. The inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 on cell division observed in the parent clone was decreased in 1NM-PP1-resistant clones; however, effects on parasite invasion and calcium-induced egress were similar in both parent and resistant clones. A plasmid construct expressing the full length TgMAPK1 splicing isoform with L162Q mutation successfully complemented TgMAPK1 function in the pressure of 250 nM 1NM-PP1 in plaque assay. 1NM-PP1-resistant clones showed resistance to other BKIs (3MB-PP1 and 3BrB-PP1) with different levels. Here we identify TgMAPK1 as a novel target for 1NM-PP1 activity. This inhibitory effect is mediated through inhibition of tachyzoite cell division, and can be overcome through mutations at multiple residues in TgMAPK1.
1NM-PP1, Bumped kinase inhibitor, Drug resistance, TgMAPK1, Toxoplasma gondii