Int J Parasitol. 2012 Sep 20. pii: S0020-7519(12)00214-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.08.004. [Epub ahead of print]
In vitro culture systems for the study of apicomplexan parasites in farm animals.
Müller J, Hemphill A.
Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne, Länggass-Strasse 122, CH-3012 Berne, Switzerland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
In vitro culture systems represent powerful tools for the study of apicomplexan parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Sarcocystis, Neospora, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Babesia and Theileria, all with high relevance for farm animals. Proliferative stages of these parasites have been cultured in vitro employing a large variety of cell culture and explant approaches. For some, such as Cryptosporidium and Eimeria, the sexual development has been reproduced in cell cultures, while for others, animal experimentation is required to fulfill the life cycle. In vitro cultures have paved the way to exploit the basic biology of these organisms, and had a major impact on the development of tools for diagnostic purposes. With the aid of in vitro cultivation, studies on host-parasite interactions, on factors involved in innate resistance, stage conversion and differentiation, genetics and transfection technology, vaccine candidates and drug effectiveness could be carried out. The use of transgenic parasites has facilitated high-throughput screening of anti-microbial compounds that are active against the proliferative stages. Here, we review the basic features of cell culture-based in vitro systems for apicomplexan parasites that are relevant for farm animals, and discuss their applications with a focus on drug identification and studies of stage differentiation.
PMID: 23000674 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]