PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25259. Epub 2011 Sep 22
MIF Participates in Toxoplasma gondii-Induced Pathology Following Oral Infection
Cavalcanti MG, Mesquita JS, Madi K, Feijó DF, Assunção-Miranda I, Souza HS, Bozza MT
SourceDepartamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is essential for controlling parasite burden and survival in a model of systemic Toxoplasma gondii infection. Peroral T. gondii infection induces small intestine necrosis and death in susceptible hosts, and in many aspects resembles inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Considering the critical role of MIF in the pathogenesis of IBD, we hypothesized that MIF participates in the inflammatory response induced by oral infection with T. gondii.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mif deficient (Mif(-)/(-)) and wild-type mice in the C57Bl/6 background were orally infected with T. gondii strain ME49. Mif(-)/(-) mice had reduced lethality, ileal inflammation and tissue damage despite of an increased intestinal parasite load compared to wt mice. Lack of MIF caused a reduction of TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-23 and an increased expression of IL-22 in ileal mucosa. Moreover, suppressed pro-inflammatory responses at the ileal mucosa observed in Mif(-)/(-) mice was not due to upregulation of IL-4, IL-10 or TGF-β. MIF also affected the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) but not MMP-2 in the intestine of infected mice. Signs of systemic inflammation including the increased concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and liver damage were less pronounced in Mif(-)/(-) mice compared to wild-type mice.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, our data suggested that in susceptible hosts MIF controls T. gondii infection with the cost of increasing local and systemic inflammation, tissue damage and death.
PMID:21977228[PubMed - in process]