Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print]
CNS-derived CCL21 is both sufficient to drive homeostatic CD4+ T cell proliferation and necessary for efficient CD4+ T cell migration into the CNS parenchyma following Toxoplasma gondii infection
Ploix CC, Noor S, Crane J, Masek K, Carter W, Lo DD, Wilson EH, Carson MJ.
Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.
Injury, infection and autoimmune triggers increase CNS expression of the chemokine CCL21. Outside the CNS, CCL21 contributes to chronic inflammatory disease and autoimmunity by three mechanisms: recruitment of lymphocytes into injured or infected tissues, organization of inflammatory infiltrates into lymphoid-like structures and promotion of homeostatic CD4+ T-cell proliferation. To test if CCL21 plays the same role in CNS inflammation, we generated transgenic mice with astrocyte-driven expression of CCL21 (GFAP-CCL21 mice). Astrocyte-produced CCL21 was bioavailable and sufficient to support homeostatic CD4+ T-cell proliferation in cervical lymph nodes even in the absence of endogenous CCL19/CCL21. However, lymphocytes and glial-activation were not detected in the brains of uninfected GFAP-CCL21 mice, although CCL21 levels in GFAP-CCL21 brains were higher than levels expressed in inflamed Toxoplasma-infected nontransgenic brains. Following Toxoplasma infection, T-cell extravasation into submeningeal, perivascular and ventricular sites of infected CNS was not CCL21-dependent, occurring even in CCL19/CCL21-deficient mice. However, migration of extravasated CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells from extra-parenchymal CNS sites into the CNS parenchyma was CCL21-dependent. CD4+ T cells preferentially accumulated at perivascular, submeningeal and ventricular spaces in infected CCL21/CCL19-deficient mice. By contrast, greater numbers of CD4+ T cells infiltrated the parenchyma of infected GFAP-CCL21 mice than in wild-type or CCL19/CCL21-deficient mice. Together these data indicate that CCL21 expression within the CNS has the potential to contribute to T cell-mediated CNS pathology via: (a) homeostatic priming of CD4+ T-lymphocytes outside the CNS and (b) by facilitating CD4+ T-cell migration into parenchymal sites following pathogenic insults to the CNS.
PMID: 20868739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]