Leuk Lymphoma. 2010 Jun 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection after allogeneic stem cell transplant can be difficult and requires intensive scrutiny
Cavattoni I, Ayuk F, Zander AR, Zabelina T, Bacher A, Cayroglu E, Knospe V, Illies T, Aepfelbacher M, Richard G, Kröger N, Bacher U.
Interdisciplinary Clinic for Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Hamburg, Germany.
Infectious complications remain a major problem after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Specifically Toxoplasma gondii infection is a life-threatening condition in immunocompromised patients. In order to highlight the difficulties in obtaining an early and definitive diagnosis, we report three cases of toxoplasmosis after HSCT for hematologic malignancies: two cases of T. gondii retinochoroiditis, and one case of encephalitis. All patients had unrelated donors and received antithymocyte globulin; none had received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis. Toxoplasmosis occurred early post-transplant and diagnosis was obtained by real-time PCR. In one case, the correct diagnosis could only be established by PCR analysis of a retinal biopsy specimen. Rapid diagnosis-by invasive approaches-and an immediate onset of antiparasite treatment are crucial to avoid disseminated and often lethal Toxoplasma infections in the post-transplant period. Post-transplant prevention strategies and treatment to control advanced infection in this setting are discussed.
PMID: 20578813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]