Genes Immun. 2010 May 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Congenital toxoplasmosis: candidate host immune genes relevant for vertical transmission and pathogenesis
Ortiz-Alegría LB, Caballero-Ortega H, Cañedo-Solares I, Rico-Torres CP, Sahagún-Ruiz A, Medina-Escutia ME, Correa D.
Laboratorio de Inmunología Experimental, Subdirección de Medicina Experimental, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, SSA, México DF, Mexico.
Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of vertebrate hosts, including humans. Transplacental passage of the parasite leads to congenital toxoplasmosis. A primary infection during the first weeks of gestation causes vertical transmission at low rate, although it causes major damage to the embryo. Transmission frequency increases to near 80% by the end of pregnancy, but the proportion of ill newborns is low. For transmission and pathogenesis, the parasite genetics is certainly important. Several host innate and adaptative immune response genes are induced during infection in adults, which control the rapidly replicating tachyzoite. The T helper 1 (Th1) response is protective, although it has to be modulated to avoid inflammatory damage. Paradoxical observations on this response pattern in congenital toxoplasmosis have been reported, as it may be protective or deleterious, inducing sterile abortion or favoring parasite transplacental passage. Regarding pregnancy, an early Th1 microenvironment is important for control of infectious diseases and successful implantation, although it has to be regulated to support trophoblast survival. Polymorphism of genes involved in these parallel phenomena, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), adhesins, cytokines, chemokines or their receptors, immunoglobulins or Fc receptors (FcRs), might be important in susceptibility for T. gondii vertical transmission, abortion or fetal pathology. In this study some examples are presented and discussed.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 6 May 2010; doi:10.1038/gene.2010.21.
PMID: 20445562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]