Vet Parasitol. 2009 Oct 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Microscopic analysis of calcium ionophore activated egress of Toxoplasma gondii from the host cell
Caldas LA, de Souza W, Attias M.
Laboratório de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Toxoplasma gondii invades and destroys nucleated cells of warm blooded hosts in a process which involves several steps: recognition, adhesion, penetration, multiplication inside a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and egress. The last one is the least understood. Parasite egress from LLC-MK2 cells infected with the RH strain of T. gondii was artificially triggered with 4BrA23187 calcium ionophore. The combination of videomicroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that egress does not result from host cell rupture due to overloading with tachyzoites. Videomicroscopy showed that upon calcium ionophore administration parasite rosettes disassemble, the contour of the parasitophorous vacuole disappears and each tachyzoite takes a separate route to the extracellular medium. FESEM and TEM showed the fragmentation of the intravacuolar network, the fragmentation of parasitophorous vacuole membrane and individual tachyzoites with extruded conoids migrating through the cytosol, tightly surrounded by remnants of parasitophorous vacuole membrane or free in the cytosol. Both videomicroscopy and FESEM showed that a single parasite can cross the host cell membrane without disrupting it, while a large number of parasites, egressing simultaneously, rupture the membrane and the cell as a whole. These data suggest that invasion and egress share less similarities than previously believed.
PMID: 19875235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]