Friday, February 13, 2009

Neuropsychiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection

Neuroimmunomodulation. 2009;16(2):122-33. Epub 2009 Feb 11

Neuropsychiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection

Henriquez SA, Brett R, Alexander J, Pratt J, Roberts CW.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow, UK.

Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately 30% of the world's population, but causes overt clinical symptoms in only a small proportion of people. In recent years, the ability of the parasite to manipulate the behaviour of infected mice and rats and alter personality attributes of humans has been reported. Furthermore, a number of studies have now suggested T. gondii infection as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and depression in humans. As T. gondii forms cysts that are located in various anatomical sites including the brain during a chronic infection, it is well placed anatomically to mediate these effects directly. The T. gondii genome is known to contain 2 aromatic amino acid hydroxylases that potentially could directly affect dopamine and/or serotonin biosynthesis. However, stimulation of the immune response has also recently been associated with mood and behavioural alterations in humans, and compounds designed to alter mood, such as fluoxetine, have been demonstrated to alter aspects of immune function. Herein, the evidence for T.-gondii-induced behavioural changes relevant to schizophrenia and depression is reviewed. Potential mechanisms responsible for these changes in behaviour including the role of tryptophan metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 19212132 [PubMed - in process]

1 comment:

ummicro said...

I am coming to this conclusion myself. Although I will add, that my evidence indicates mediators from mast cells are causing various physiological events, including ammonia production and many other toxins generated from degrading cells. The infection in host [me] is primarily in the intestine. I have proven the parasite infects these cells directly. I have no data on "type" of coccidian, but will try and obtain mtDNA COI barcode on microbe.