Tuesday, June 03, 2008

Biogenesis of and activities at the Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane

Subcell Biochem. 2008;47:155-64

Biogenesis of and activities at the Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane

Sinai AP.

Department of Microbiology Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 800 Rose St., Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. sinai@uky.edu

Apicomplexan parasites like Toxoplasma gondii are distinctive in their utilization of para site encoded motor systems to invade cells. Invasion results in the establishment of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) within the infected cell. Most apicomplexans complete their intracellular tenure within the infected cell in the PV that is demarcated from the host cytoplasm by the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). In this chapter I focus on the events surrounding the formation of the PVM and selected activities attributed to it. Its central role as the interface between the parasite and its immediate environment, the host cytoplasm, is validated by the diversity of functions attributed to it. While functions in structural organization, nutrient acquisitions and signaling have been defined their molecular bases remain largely unknown. Several recent studies and the decoding of the Toxoplasma genome have set the stage for a rapid expansion in our understanding of the role of the PVM in parasite biology. Toxoplasma gondii, like all apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular pathogens. This family of parasites utilize their own actin-myosin based motor systems to gain entry into susceptible cells establishing themselves, in some cases transiently (e.g., Theileria spp) in specialized vacuolar compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The T. gondii PV is highly dynamic compartment defining the replication permissive niche for the parasite. The delimiting membrane defining the parasitophorous vacuole, the parasitophorous vacuole membrane or PVM is increasingly being recognized as a specialized "organelle" that in the context of the infected cell is extracorporeal to the parent organism, the parasite. A systematic study of this enigmatic organelle has been severely limited by several issues. Primary among these is the fact that it is formed only in the context of the infected cell thereby limiting the amount of material. Secondly, unlike other cellular organelles that can often be purified by conventional approaches, the PVM, cannot be purified away from host cell organelles (see below). In spite of these significant obstacles considerable progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the biogenesis of the PVM, identification of its protein complement and the characterization of activities within it. These studies demonstrate that the PVM, on its own and by virtue of its interactions with cellular components, plays critical functions in the structural integrity of the vacuole, nutrient acquisition and the manipulation of cellular functions. In addition it appears that the repertoire of activities at the PVM is likely to be plastic reflecting temporal changes associated with the replicative phase of parasite growth. Finally, the PVM likely forms the foundation for the cyst wall as the parasite differentiates in the establishment of latent infection. As the critical border crossing between the parasite and invaded cell the study of the PVM provides a fertile area for new investigation aided by the recent decoding of the Toxoplasma genome (available at wwww.ToxoDB.org) and the application of proteomic analyses to basic questions in parasite biology.

PMID: 18512349 [PubMed - in process]

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